New nanodimensional drug carriers for myocardial ischemia treatment and intrasurgical diagnostics of cardiac muscle injuries are being developed in St. Petersburg. Researchers at the Federal Almazov North-West Medical Research Center have published the current results of their effort in English in Biomedical Optics Express and Drug Delivery. The research was co-financed from a Russian Scientific Fund grant.
Myocardial ischemia typically revealed in acute coronary syndrome is widespread and is a prime suspect in increasing mortality rates across the globe. Administering various cardioprotective compounds leads to multiple side effects. Targeted drug delivery right into an ischemia-affected area with a minimized impact on surrounding healthy tissue is a solution to the problem.
The St. Pete scientists are working on nanodimensional drug carriers capable of accumulating in areas of ischemia-reperfusion injury due to an increase in vascular permeability and nanoparticles’ unique physicochemical properties.
In their articles, the researchers described the properties of the novel nanocarriers, which is organomodified silica, and the way silicon-containing particles sized 3 to 150 nanometers were synthesized. Adenosine was used as a cardioprotective compound for the experiment. In drug release kinetics studies, adenosine was immobilized on organomodified silica nanoparticles (NPs) using three different approaches: physical adsorption, ionic, and covalent bonding.
Animal tests ruled out organomodified silica’s acute toxicity in intravenous administering. It was also found that adenosine adsorption on organomodified silica NPs had resulted in a significant attenuation of adenosine-induced hypotension and bradycardia, typically associated with the intravenous administering of NPs-free adenosine.
To monitor the distribution of NPs in a living organism the scientists used fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green as fluorophore. This in vivo visualization method can be applied directly to the surface of the heart to watch a drug delivered into damaged areas.